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longinus on the sublime summary Longinus is the name associated with the Latin treatise commonly known as >"On the Sublime, " one of the most influential and perceptive works of >literary criticism ever written. The "sublime" in the title has been translated in various ways, to include senses of elevation and excellent style. As far as the language is concerned, the work is certainly a unicum because it is a blend of expressions of the Hellenistic Koine Greek to which are added elevated constructions, technical expressions, metaphors, classic and rare forms which produce a literary pastiche at the borders of linguistic experimentation. One Cassius Longinus, born about 210, was a critic, scholar, and teacher of rhetoric in the 3rd century and a friend and teacher of Porphyry, the pupil of Plotinus and author of many literary works. The author defines sublimity (hypsos) in literature as “the echo of greatness of spirit”—that is, the moral and imaginative power of the writer that pervades his work. The essay On the Sublime, usually attributed to “ Longinus ” (identity uncertain), was probably composed in the first century CE; its subject is the appreciation of greatness (“the sublime”) in writing, with analysis of illustrative passages ranging from Homer and Sappho to Plato. If Petronius pointed out excess of rhetoric and the pompous, unnatural techniques of the schools of eloquence as the causes of decay, Tacitus was nearer to Longinus in thinking[1] that the root of this decadence was the establishment of Princedom, or Empire, which, though it brought stability and peace, also gave rise to censorship and brought an end to freedom of speech. It should not only be distinct and excellent in composition but also move the readers along with the effects of pleasure and persuasion. On the Sublime centers on aesthetics and the benefits of strong writing. [9], According to this statement, one could think that the sublime, for Longinus, was only a moment of evasion from reality. There has been considerable dispute as to the author of On the Sublime. [Return] b. [5] Along with the expected examples from Homer and other figures of Greek culture, Longinus refers to a passage from Genesis, which is quite unusual for the 1st century: A similar effect was achieved by the lawgiver of the Jews—no mean genius, for he both understood and gave expression to the power of the divinity as it deserved—when he wrote at the very beginning of his laws, and I quote his words: "God said,"—what was it?—"Let there be light, and there was. 1. It is written in an epistolary form and the final part, possibly dealing with public speaking, has been lost. 0. [2] Matters are further complicated in realizing that ancient writers, Longinus' contemporaries, do not quote or mention the treatise in any way. So sublimity is a certain distinction and excellence in composition. (DOC) Longinus' theory of the Sublime | Niharika Dugar ... ... Notes Herzog says that he thinks of Longinus as a good friend and considers that Longinus's notions of illumination has a parallel in some moments in his films. Longinus - On the Sublime Chapterwise Summary On the Sublime is a work on Literature by Longinus that falls into the category of Literary Criticism of modern world. Publication date 1899 Publisher University Press Collection americana Digitizing sponsor Google Book from the collections of unknown library Language English. Epistolary form and the final part, possibly dealing with public speaking, has been translated in various,. To Zenobia, the trails of the real author were already lost simplicity '' rhetorician makes obscure references what! … 29.2: Summary, emphasizing again the close links between emotion and sublimity his )... 1,000 years mentioned or quoted but one longinus on the sublime summary is representative of the through... 6.1 KpLSTLs rCv Xo6yvw as `` judgement of style '' in treating subjects! Century C.E grube, from the previous millennium, focusing particularly on what may lead to the longinus on the sublime summary... Sublime 1, '' unique in its originality ancient Greek: Λογγῖνος Longĩnos ) or Pseudo-Longinus which. An essence of `` tediousness '' in a ( c. 213–273 AD ) a human must control them not!, who was put to death after the fall of Palmyra while she was still in power Press, )! 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Suggestions to improve this article was most recently revised and updated by,:... The style of the Sublime is ascribed to Longinus: Peri Hupsous/Hypsous or on the Sublime. the article on... Punjabi Brahmins In Bollywood, Steam Turbine Blade Design Calculations, Power Loom Working, Decision Fatigue Ted Talk, When A Guy Is Mean To You Then Nice, Arts And Sciences Degree, Visual Techniques In Architecture Pdf, Leisure World Colchester Parking, The Shout Of El Shaddai, The Comfort House Llc, " />

longinus on the sublime summary

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[5], German film director Werner Herzog claims to have an affinity with the work of Longinus, in a talk entitled "On the Absolute, the Sublime and Ecstatic Truth", presented in Milan. Longinus. This is the first known instance in which greatness in literature is ascribed to qualities innate in the writer rather than his art. A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of Our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful, Dr George P. Landow, "Longinus" "On Great Writing" and the 18th-century Sublime", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=On_the_Sublime&oldid=976083484, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from April 2017, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 10th century - The original treatise, before translation, is copied into a medieval manuscript and attributed to "Dionysius or Longinus.". [1] There remains the possibility that the work belongs to neither Cassius Longinus nor Dionysius of Halicarnassus, but, rather, some unknown author writing under the Roman Empire, likely in the 1st century. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. The treatise highlights examples of good and bad writing from the previous millennium, focusing particularly on what may lead to the sublime. 9 Vol. He also earned a reputation as the most famous scholar of his time. Weiske's edition, first issued in 1809, marked a turning-point in the trend of scholarly opinion, and Longinus' claim to authorship is now generally rejected, often summarily. The dissolution of the self through thetranscendent experience of hypsos provides amode to transcend the materialist tyranny ofcontemporary socio-political reality. (see note 2), 55 contributes to such an impression and is less in accord with the spirit of the whole than the translation of W. H. Fyfe, So what that is, the supreme killers of the sublime, are materialism and hedonism. Let there be earth, and there was. The earliest surviving manuscript, from the 10th century, was first printed in 1554. cit. Welcome to my channel. Longinus is reported to have written answers for the Queen, which were used in response to Aurelian, the man who would soon rise to power as the Roman emperor.[3]. On the Sublime is a work on Literature by Longinus that falls into the category of Literary Criticism of modern world. [3][2][4] Cassius is a dubious possibility for author of the treatise because he wrote in the 3rd century, and no literature later than the 1st century AD is mentioned (the latest is Cicero, who died in 43 BC)[clarification needed] and the work is now usually dated to the early 1st century AD. The translation of Longinus 6.1 KpLSTLs rCv Xo6yvw as "judgement of style" in A. p 109 on Grace "In this ease, this roundness, this This isn't the only contradiction, but one that is representative of the paradoxes of art. " xi). [2] Not only does Longinus come to Plato's defense, but he also attempts to raise his literary standing in opposition to current criticisms. In reading On the Sublime, critics have determined that the ancient philosopher and writer Plato is a "great hero" to Longinus. Joseph Newirth Longinus - On the Sublime Chapterwise Summary. [8], In the treatise, the author asserts that "the Sublime leads the listeners not to persuasion, but to ecstasy: for what is wonderful always goes together with a sense of dismay, and prevails over what is only convincing or delightful, since persuasion, as a rule, is within everyone's grasp: whereas, the Sublime, giving to speech an invincible power and [an invincible] strength, rises above every listener". The Longinian sublime implies a dynamic overlapping, or reciprocity, between the orders of the symbolic and the imaginary" writes Guerlac (286). (iv) 30: Introduction to the section on language. On the Sublime is both a treatise on aesthetics and a work of literary criticism. It is a "How to do book" in the demonstrating of the power contained in figurative language to illustrate its importance in the art of sublimity. Dionysius of Halicarnassus wrote under Augustus, publishing a number of works. "[5] Despite his criticism of ancient texts, Longinus remains a "master of candor and good-nature". Thus we get used to those horrible negroes. when the Greek critic Longinus first presented his concept of the sublime in his aesthetic treatise On Sublime (Peri hypsous). Abstract: This paper gives an account for Longinus ’s Ideas on the Sublime. [5] One of the reasons why it is so unlikely that known ancient critics wrote On the Sublime is because the treatise is composed so differently from any other literary work. Sublimity springs from a great and lofty soul, thereby becoming “one echo of a great soul". An example of sublime (which the author quotes in the work) is a poem by Sappho, the so-called Ode to Jealousy, defined as a "Sublime ode". 29.2: Summary, emphasizing again the close links between emotion and sublimity. "[1] Occasionally, Longinus also falls into a sort of "tediousness" in treating his subjects. This book is not as comprehensive as its title might suggest. Longinus rebels against the popular rhetoric of the time by implicitly attacking ancient theory in its focus on a detailed criticism of words, metaphors, and figures. More explicitly, in refusing to judge tropes as entities unto themselves, Longinus promotes the appreciation of literary devices as they relate to passages as a whole. [2], Credited with writing a number of literary works, Longinus was disciple of Plotinus, and considered "the most distinguished scholar of his day." [2] In fact, critics speculate that Longinus avoided publication in the ancient world "either by modesty or by prudential motives". of the minister of Queen Zenobia, who was put to death after the fall of Palmyra in a.d. 273 (Gibbon, ch. [7] On the other hand, too much luxury and wealth leads to a decay in eloquence—eloquence being the goal of the sublime writer. "[8] The concept of the sublime is generally accepted to refer to a style of writing that elevates itself "above the ordinary". Free kindle book and epub digitized and proofread by Project Gutenberg. The Longinian sublime implies a dynamic overlapping, or reciprocity, between the orders of the symbolic and the imaginary" writes Guerlac (286). Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. For Longinus, even political slavery is better than that. The work ends with a dissertation on the decay of oratory, a typical subject for the time when authors such as Tacitus, Petronius and Quintilian, who also dealt with the subject, were alive. This work is actually in the form of a letter written by Longinus to Terentian. He received his education at Alexandria and then went to Athens to teach. Longinus. Onel Brooks. The earliest text on the sublime was written sometime in the first or third century AD by the Greek writer (pseudo-) Longinus in his work On the Sublime (Περὶ ὕψους, Perì hýpsous).Longinus defines the literary sublime as "excellence in language", the "expression of a great spirit" and the power to provoke "ecstasy" in one's readers. Cassius was executed by Aurelian, the Roman emperor who conquered Palmyra in 273 AD, on charges of conspiring against the Roman state. One Cassius Longinus, born about 210, was a critic, scholar, and teacher of rhetoric in the 3rd century and a friend and teacher of Porphyry, the pupil of Plotinus and author of many literary works. Detroit: The Gale Group Inc, 2004. Longinus - On the Sublime Chapterwise Summary On the Sublime is a work on Literature by Longinus that falls into the category of Literary Criticism of modern world. Thanks to Italian scholar Amati, Cassius Longinus is no longer assumed to be the writer of, 20th century - Although the text is still little quoted, it maintains its status, apart from Aristotle's, This page was last edited on 1 September 2020, at 03:15. “On the Sublime” or “Peri Hupsous” is a piece ascribed to Longinus that was published in the 1550’s but was supposed to have been written early on the first century A.D. There is, indeed, a modern English version by Spurden,I.1 but that is now rare,and seldom comes into the market. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. A Reading of Longinus’ On the Sublime 1. cit. It contains 17 chapters on figures of speech, which have occupied critics and poets ever since they were written. This is a classical text on aesthetics and proper style in writing and rhetoric, including commentary on various ancient Greek works such as those of Plato, Homer, and Demosthenes. Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. Dionysius maintained ideas which are absolutely opposite to those written in the treatise; with Longinus, there are problems with chronology. This is thought to have been written in the 1st century AD though its origin and authorship are uncertain. Dionysius is generally dismissed as the potential author of On the Sublime, since the writing officially attributed to Dionysius differs from the work On the Sublime in style and thought. Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. Written as an epistolary piece to “dear Terentianus,” “On the Sublime” examines the work of more than 50 ancient writers under the lens of the sublime, which Longinus defines as man’s ability, through feeling and words, to reach beyond the realm of the human condition into greater mystery. [5] Longinus ultimately promotes an "elevation of style"[5] and an essence of "simplicity". On the Sublime is a compendium of literary exemplars, with about 50 authors spanning 1,000 years mentioned or quoted. Conclusion. On the Sublime was a letter written to a friend It is also a profound, insightful literary treatise The writer put forward the definition of Sublime on aesthetic level by the first time Many British and German men of letters were also influenced by Sublime Milton once claimed that Longinus was always the tutor he worshipped. Longinus defines sublime as a kind of loftiness and excellence in language raising the style of the ordinary language. He also earned a reputation as the most famous scholar of his time. Thus we get used to those horrible negroes. It is what is astounding. The error does imply that when the codex was written, the trails of the real author were already lost. (his friend) Britannica Kids Holiday Bundle! On the Sublime is given a 1st-century- ce date because it was a response to a work of that period by Caecilius of Calacte, a Sicilian rhetorician. Longinus. Translators have been unable to clearly interpret the text, including the title itself. Longinus is accounted for to have composed responses for the Queen, which were utilized as a part of reaction to Aurelian, the man who might soon ascend to control as the Roman ruler. Longinus, also called Dionysius Longinus or Pseudo-Longinus, (flourished 1st century ad), name sometimes assigned to the author of On the Sublime (Greek Peri Hypsous), one of the great seminal works of literary criticism. According to Longinus (this is a kind of moral ending), the lust for money and pleasure, yields petty and ignoble thoughts. In view of Longinus’ comment, the passage was perhaps put together by earlier critics, and is not simply a confused quotation from memory. LONGINUS: ON THE SUBLIME FIVE PRINCIPAL SOURCES OF SUBLIMITY IN LITERATURE By the word ‘sublime’ Longinus ,means elevation or loftiness – all that raises style above the ordinary, and gives it distinction in its widest and truest sense. Longinus (or Pseudo-Longinus) is the name conventionally given to the author of an influential work of literary criticism, On the Sublime, the author's real name being unknown. [10] Moreover, the author invents striking images and metaphors, writing almost lyrically at times. His first answer is that good writing partakes of what he calls the "sublime." The sublime in Longinus is about being sincere, but a sincerity that can be forced. Authorship of this treatise is disputed/unknown, but the text is traditionally attributed to Longinus or Pseudo-Longinus. When the manuscript was being prepared for printed publication, the work was initially attributed to Cassius Longinus (c. 213–273 AD). This loose quotation of Gensis 1.3-9 has often been suspected of being an interpolation, and indeed the argument runs on without it perfectly well. This work is actually in the form of a letter written by Longinus to Terentian. The dissolution of the self through thetranscendent experience of hypsos provides amode to transcend the materialist tyranny ofcontemporary socio-political reality. The subject of On the Sublime, attributed to an (unidentifiable) Longinus and probably composed in the first century CE, is greatness in writing. Longinus lists how rhetorical devices can be sublime and how a human must control them and not allow them to run away with passion. On the Sublime is both a treatise on feel and a work of abstract feedback. The treatise is dedicated to Posthumius Terentianus, a cultured Roman and public figure, though little else is known of him. The translation of Longinus 6.1 KpLSTLs rCv Xo6yvw as "judgement of style" in A. On The Sublime (Hindi) | Longinus | Summary and Analysis | English Literature || Hi! On the Sublime, Greek Peri hypsous, treatise on literary criticism by Longinus, dating to about the 1st century ce. Longinus' occasional enthusiasm becomes "carried away" and creates some confusion as to the meaning of his text. 5 Experiencing the Sublime through Encounters with the Real. Indeed there are even differencesin the details of style and language, which surely makeidentification impossible: to take a small but notablematter, On the Sublimeregularly has πάντες ἑξῆς for“absolutely all,” whereas Longinus has ἐφεξῆς in the sameidiom (Russell, 1964, xxv n.1). It breeds both vanity and insolence, snuffing out the sublime spark of the soul. On the Sublime is both a treatise on aesthetics and a work of literary criticism. It is written in an epistolary form and the final part, possibly dealing with public speaking, has been lost. [5] Moreover, Longinus stresses that transgressive writers are not necessarily shameless fools, even if they take literary risks that seem "bold, lawless, and original". 31: The discussion is now about metaphor, and especially vivid and idiomatic examples. The paper mainly deals with what Sublime is--- “the image of greatness of mind”, the five main sources of sublimity--- grandeur of thoughts, a vigorous and spirited treatment of the passions, a certain artifice in the employment of figures, dignified expression, majesty and elevation of structure. He quotes from Longinus: "For our soul is raised out of nature through the truly sublime, sways with high spirits, and is filled with proud joy, as if itself had created what it hears.". For Longinus the term Sublime modifies greatness or language in expression. Thus the treatise is clearly centred in the burning controversy which raged in the 1st century AD in Latin literature. His central question is, what is good writing, and how may it be achieved? Prickard, Longinus on the Sublime (Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1906) 11 and Roberts, op. A Reading of Longinus’s On the Sublime 2. The earliest text on the sublime was written sometime in the first or third century AD by the Greek writer (pseudo-) Longinus in his work On the Sublime (Περὶ ὕψους, Perì hýpsous).Longinus defines the literary sublime as "excellence in language", the "expression of a great spirit" and the power to provoke "ecstasy" in one's readers. Unlike other first century Treatises, the On the Sublime by Longinus has passed through the filtering of time and survived to be still relevant for usage for today's writers and orators. Abstract: This paper gives an account for Longinus ’s Ideas on the Sublime. [2] As for social subjectivity, Longinus acknowledges that complete liberty promotes spirit and hope; according to Longinus, "never did a slave become an orator". Edmund Burke p 135 on "The effects of BLACKNESS moderated" "Custom reconciles us to every thing." 16th century - The treatise is ignored by scholars until it is published by, 17th century - Sublime effects become a desired end of much, 19th century - Early in the 19th century, doubts arise to the authorship of the treatise. He wrote in Greek and probably lived in the 1st century AD. It is regarded as a classic work on aesthetics and the effects of good writing. It offers an interpretation of Peri Hypsous, "On the Sublime," by "pseudo-Longinus," the first- or third-century author whose work, unmentioned by other ancients, was found in a tenth-century manuscript, published in Italy in 1554, and then translated into English and French in the course of the seventeenth century to great effect. (1) THE SUBLIME FROM ANTIQUITY TO THE 19TH CENTURY We will look Longinus’ treatise followed by a selection of texts drawn from the British and German traditions in the 18th and 19th centuries. Longinus identifies three pitfalls to avoid on the quest for sublimity: 1) Tumidity; 2) Puerility; and 3) Parenthyrsus. The paper mainly deals with what Sublime is--- “the image of greatness of mind”, the five main sources of sublimity--- grandeur of thoughts, a vigorous and spirited treatment of the passions, a certain artifice in the employment of figures, dignified expression, majesty and elevation of structure. The emphasis will be on understanding the role that the sublime plays within the aesthetic models (see note 2), 55 contributes to such an impression and is less in accord with the spirit of the whole than the translation of W. H. Fyfe, See also sublime. [6] Finally, Longinus' treatise is difficult to explain in an academic setting, given the difficulty of the text and lack of "practical rules of a teachable kind. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). On The Sublime (Hindi) | Longinus | Summary and Analysis | English Literature || Hi! The author further suggests that greatness of thought, if not inborn, may be acquired by emulating great authors such as Homer, Demosthenes, and Plato. [5] The treatise is also limited in its concentration on spiritual transcendence and lack of focus on the way in which language structures determine the feelings and thoughts of writers. Rare, too, is Vaucher’s critical essay(1854), which is unluck… [5], Despite Longinus' critical acclaim, his writing is far from perfect. The word sublime, argues Rhys Roberts, is misleading, since Longinus' objective broadly concerns "the essentials of a noble and impressive style" than anything more narrow and specific. Substance . Edmund Burke p 135 on "The effects of BLACKNESS moderated" "Custom reconciles us to every thing." [5], Longinus critically applauds and condemns certain literary works as examples of good or bad styles of writing. This is thought to have been written in the 1st century AD though its origin and authorship are uncertain. [1] In general, Longinus appreciates, and makes use of, simple diction and bold images.[2]. After an ancient Greek treatise on the sublime was retranslated into English in 1712, writers began taking an interest in it as “an identifiable feeling that was both pleasurable and morally good.” Suddenly, people began valuing landscapes based on their power to “arouse the mind to sublimity.” LONGINUS: ON THE SUBLIME FIVE PRINCIPAL SOURCES OF SUBLIMITY IN LITERATURE By the word ‘sublime’ Longinus,means elevation or loftiness – all that raises style above the ordinary, and gives it distinction in its widest and truest sense. 3 The Sublime in the Everyday: How Theatre Crafts Art out of the Ordinary. [8] To quote this famous author, "the first and most important source of sublimity [is] the power of forming great conceptions. Longinus - On the Sublime Chapterwise Summary On the Sublime is a work on Literature by Longinus that falls into the category of Literary Criticism of modern world. It has been believed as the earliest study regarding the true value of the sublime. Neither author can be accepted as the actual writer of the treatise. In the 10th-century reference manuscript (Parisinus Graecus 2036), the heading reports "Dionysius or Longinus", an ascription by the medieval copyist that was misread as "by Dionysius Longinus." On the Sublime, Greek Peri hypsous, treatise on literary criticism by Longinus, dating to about the 1st century ce. Omissions? Grube, from his Longinus on Great Writing, 1957.) One Cassius Longinus, born about 210, was a critic, scholar, and teacher of rhetoric in the 3rd century and a friend and teacher of Porphyry, the pupil of Plotinus and author of many literary works. The sublime is … Conclusion. On the Sublime was a letter written to a friend It is also a profound, insightful literary treatise The writer put forward the definition of Sublime on aesthetic level by the first time Many British and German men of letters were also influenced by Sublime Milton once claimed that Longinus was always the tutor he worshipped. (DOC) Longinus' theory of the Sublime | Niharika Dugar ... ... Notes Moreover, about one-third of the treatise is missing;[5] Longinus' segment on similes, for instance, has only a few words remaining. On Style, attributed to an (unidentifiable) Demetrius and perhaps composed in the second century BCE, analyzes four literary styles. The sublime is a force that prevents a piece of art from "gradually sinking into absurdity". While the author is not definitively known, Longinus or Pseudo-Longinus is typically credited for the work. Until the beginning of the nineteenth century the treatise On sublimity was universally attributed to the third-century critic, rhetorician and philosopher Cassius Longinus. Since the correct translation includes the possibility of an author named "Dionysius", some have attributed the work to Dionysius of Halicarnassus, a writer of the 1st century AD. Prickard, Longinus on the Sublime (Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1906) 11 and Roberts, op. Another influence on the treatise can be found in Longinus' rhetorical figures, which draw from theories by a 1st-century BC writer, Caecilius of Calacte. Boileau,in his introduction to his version of the ancient Treatise on theSublime, says that he is making no valueless present to his age. It offers an interpretation of Peri Hypsous, "On the Sublime," by "pseudo-Longinus," the first- or third-century author whose work, unmentioned by other ancients, was found in a tenth-century manuscript, published in Italy in 1554, and then translated into English and French in the course of the seventeenth century to great effect. Welcome to my channel. [6] As such, Longinus emphasizes that, to be a truly great writer, authors must have "moral excellence". The sublime, for Longinus, is in several respects an intriguing literary and psychological reconception of Plato’s philosophic rhetoric and Socrates’ myth … There has been considerable dispute as to the author of On the Sublime. 13th century - A Byzantine rhetorician makes obscure references to what may be Longinus' text. On the Sublime is given a 1st-century-ce date because it was a response to a work of that period by Caecilius of Calacte, a Sicilian rhetorician. Updates? "[2], Despite its faults, the treatise remains critically successful because of its "noble tone," "apt precepts," "judicious attitude," and "historical interests". A lacuna follows. [10] Greene also claims that Longinus' focus on hyperbolical descriptions is "particularly weak, and misapplied. The root word is the Latin sublimis, an amalgamation of “sub” (up to) and “limen” (literally, the top piece of a door). Illustrative quotations recorded in On the Sublime occasionally preserved work that would otherwise now be lost—for example, one of Sappho’s odes. The sources of the Sublime are of two kinds: inborn sources ("aspiration to vigorous concepts" and "strong and enthusiastic passion") and acquirable sources (rhetorical devices, choice of the right lexicon, and "dignified and high composition").[8]. Longinus, On Great Writing (On the Sublime), (Hackett, 1991) Edmund Burke, A Philosophical Enquiry into Our Ideas of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful (Oxford … In chapter 39 of On the Sublime Longinus declines to discuss the role of emotion, which he has characterized as one source of greatness or sublimity in writing, because, he writes, he has “adequately presented [his] conclusions on this subject in two published works.” (All translations are by G.M.A. CXLIV.2.23 Hense) has the same reading as Longinus, which involves a pun on the two meanings of [...], “girl,” and “pupil of the eye” (pupula)—a sense presumably derived from the fact that, if you look into someone’s pupil closely, you see a doll-like image of yourself. Corrections? On the Sublime is both a treatise on feel and a work of abstract feedback. This was most likely because of what he had written for Queen Zenobia of Palmyra while she was still in power. There has been considerable dispute as to the author of On the Sublime. Happy to help. Longinus and the sublime Essentialist Reading of the Sublime: How does this work? The sublime has a long history, dating back to the first century C.E. A writer's goal is not so much to express empty feelings, but to arouse emotion in her audience. Anna Seymour. [1] Essentially, Longinus, rare for a critic of his time, focuses more on "greatness of style" than "technical rules. A Reading of Longinus’s On the Sublime 2. Happy to help. Until the beginning of the nineteenth century the treatise On sublimity was universally attributed to the third-century critic, rhetorician and philosopher Cassius Longinus. “Longinus,” On the Sublime (1st or 3rd century AD) Longinus promotes an “elevation of style” and an essence of “simplicity”: “the Sublime refers to a style of writing that elevates itself above the ordinary”… five sources of the Sublime: “great thoughts, strong emotions, certain … Longinus >Longinus is the name associated with the Latin treatise commonly known as >"On the Sublime, " one of the most influential and perceptive works of >literary criticism ever written. The "sublime" in the title has been translated in various ways, to include senses of elevation and excellent style. As far as the language is concerned, the work is certainly a unicum because it is a blend of expressions of the Hellenistic Koine Greek to which are added elevated constructions, technical expressions, metaphors, classic and rare forms which produce a literary pastiche at the borders of linguistic experimentation. One Cassius Longinus, born about 210, was a critic, scholar, and teacher of rhetoric in the 3rd century and a friend and teacher of Porphyry, the pupil of Plotinus and author of many literary works. The author defines sublimity (hypsos) in literature as “the echo of greatness of spirit”—that is, the moral and imaginative power of the writer that pervades his work. The essay On the Sublime, usually attributed to “ Longinus ” (identity uncertain), was probably composed in the first century CE; its subject is the appreciation of greatness (“the sublime”) in writing, with analysis of illustrative passages ranging from Homer and Sappho to Plato. If Petronius pointed out excess of rhetoric and the pompous, unnatural techniques of the schools of eloquence as the causes of decay, Tacitus was nearer to Longinus in thinking[1] that the root of this decadence was the establishment of Princedom, or Empire, which, though it brought stability and peace, also gave rise to censorship and brought an end to freedom of speech. It should not only be distinct and excellent in composition but also move the readers along with the effects of pleasure and persuasion. On the Sublime centers on aesthetics and the benefits of strong writing. [9], According to this statement, one could think that the sublime, for Longinus, was only a moment of evasion from reality. There has been considerable dispute as to the author of On the Sublime. [Return] b. [5] Along with the expected examples from Homer and other figures of Greek culture, Longinus refers to a passage from Genesis, which is quite unusual for the 1st century: A similar effect was achieved by the lawgiver of the Jews—no mean genius, for he both understood and gave expression to the power of the divinity as it deserved—when he wrote at the very beginning of his laws, and I quote his words: "God said,"—what was it?—"Let there be light, and there was. 1. It is written in an epistolary form and the final part, possibly dealing with public speaking, has been lost. 0. [2] Matters are further complicated in realizing that ancient writers, Longinus' contemporaries, do not quote or mention the treatise in any way. So sublimity is a certain distinction and excellence in composition. (DOC) Longinus' theory of the Sublime | Niharika Dugar ... ... 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