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sustainable construction and sustainability background

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sustainable construction and sustainability background

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… So the concept of sustainable construction goes far beyond installing energy-efficient mechanical systems or making sure the client chooses LCD lighting for their new building. Mansor, in Advanced High Strength Natural Fibre Composites in Construction, 2017. As part of its certification, evaluations of 11 groups of building materials and components are undertaken (floor coverings and suspended ceilings from timber, other timber materials, doors, sockets, paint, parquet overcoat, sealing materials, body filler, tile adhesive, gypsum boards, plaster, concrete parts, and movable dividing walls). Isa Yuksel, in Waste and Supplementary Cementitious Materials in Concrete, 2018. A great lineup of Industry experts will be presenting at this meeting; you can view them here. Many actions blossomed largely after the June 1987 report from UN Documents “Gathering a Body of Global Agreements” which issued the “Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development: Our Common Future”. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. In sustainable construction, structures are designed to have a minimal environmental impact during their Background Los Angeles World Airports (LAWA) has a longstanding commitment to advancing sustainability in our built environment and operations, as first conveyed in our Sustainability Vision and Principles adopted in 2007. My next several posts will summarize various foreign associations also engaged in certification for buildings and how their focus differs from that of LEED but also how international cooperation is evolving. 34 47 3. This is because air recirculation is sometimes done in mechanically ventilated buildings by blocking outdoor air in order to quickly achieve indoor air conditioning and save energy (Joshi, 2008). The use of GGBFS in concrete has increased considerably in recent years and it is expected to reach to 75 million tons by the year 2020 (Ramezanianpour, 2013). The incorporation of GGBFS into the cement is beneficial for durability. And, with over 2.2 million square feet of space becoming Thoughtful sel… As the service life of structures increases, then the use of cement diminishes. The objective was to produce a set of universal goals that meet the urgent environmental, political and economic challenges facing our world. Background on the goals The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) were born at the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development in Rio de Janeiro in 2012. This contributes to acid rains which affect ecosystems through a dry or wet deposition process. This as well as its use of energy makes it costly to run and it leaves carbon footprints (Ianniella, 2011; Rim et al., 2015). 6.2 shows an example of an EPD with six LCA impact measures. The USGBC was created in 1993 and the first LEED certification standard was issued in March 2000. Forest resources are similarly exploited for timber which is often used as a construction material. Furthermore, to reduce the impact on environment and energy consumption, reusable, recyclable at the end-of-life materials, with low embodied energy,1 and available in a proximate distance from the construction site (to minimize the consumption of fuel, emissions, and road congestion) should be used (Wahlström et al., 2014). Moreover, it assists communities and governments in slowing down the continuous process of urban expansion and minimizes its environmental, social, and economic costs. It was demonstrated that by replacing up to 20% of natural aggregates by recycled ones, composites of self-compacting nature and required strength can be developed by consuming fewer natural resources and less energy. Figure 6.2. This concept is defined as development that ‘meets the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs’ (WCED, 1987). Source: Own construction 2.1 The concept and definition of sustainability The most well-known definition of sustainability was given at the 1987 UN conference on the environment and development. Construction activities and related extraction of natural resources require large amounts of water for processing. It can de defined as “the creation and responsible management of a healthy built environment based on resource efficient and … The very thin folder shell type element developed has the advantage of allowing the inclusion of electrical, hydraulic, air conditioning, and other types of pipes inside the slab without decreasing the free space of the divisions. Booth, in Sustainability of Construction Materials (Second Edition), 2016. Over 90 classroom and online courses, including HQM & BREEAM assessor, starting from just £10. It is geared towards utilizing resource-efficient and environmentally responsible processes in construction. Great amount of carbon dioxide emitted during the production of PC is one of the main reasons for the global warming. It recognises that decisions made now will have long term as well as short term impacts. Policy Background 6 2 Sustainable Construction: The Principles 7 Land-use & Ecology 8 Siting & Orientation 9 Passive Design 10 Thermal Mass 11 Surface Water Run-Off 12 Water 13 Energy 14 Materials 15 Waste 16 Legislation & Assessment Tools 17 Case Study 18 3 Retrofitting: The basics 19 Introduction to Retrofitting 20 17th Century Building 22 Georgian/18th Century Building Green Walls … In Germany, the Technischer Überwachungs Verein (TÜV) (TÜV Rheinland Group, 2016) is a large multidisciplinary institution evaluating a wide variety of technical issues associated with products, including car warrants of fitness and atomic power plant safety. The built environment consists of a variety of buildings in different shapes and sizes, old and new. As applied to the construction industry, the attainment of sustainability is achieving the right balance between the pillars (Hill and Bowen, 1997). Fourthly, policy is encouraging setting threshold limits for the environmental impact of building materials. Demand for sustainable practices: The increasing awareness and legislation has led to increased demand for sustainable construction practices. Sustainability has become a buzzword everywhere. One of the most promising sources of raw material, which can highly contribute to improve the environmental performance of current building materials, is natural fibre composites (NFC). Allergenic impact from building materials is also within TÜV’s responsibilities. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. In this work the use of sisal macrofibers as reinforcement of mortars including recycled aggregates aim to contribute to the production of more sustainable constructions systems due to the renewable and biodegradable nature of this fiber reinforcement, and by extending the life cycle of construction demolition waste. When referring to BIM in sustainable construction, it takes on special meaning for professionals. One of the methods recently adopted by the construction industry is green construction (sustainable construction, sustainable, or green buildings), which is defined by US Green Building Council (Kriss, 2014), as “planning, design, construction, and operations of buildings with several central, foremost considerations: energy use, water use, indoor environmental quality, material selection and the building’s effects on its site.” These efforts aim to amplify the positive and mitigate the negative of these effects throughout the entire life cycle of a building—sitting, design, construction, operation, maintenance, renovation, and demolition. TÜV also provides independent surveys of the indoor climate for buildings and, if up to standard, awards a ToxProof certificate for the building. The end result of a sustainable construction project must be an environmentally friendly building or environment. Where it gets hard is in construction. (2014). A study by Yang et al. It’s a philosophy that impacts every aspect of the design and construction phases as well as the ongoing maintenance and operation of the building going forward. Such emissions leave traces in the air and water which may affect human health especially when they reach intolerable levels. The construction industry is one of these sectors due to its direct influence on heavy natural resource consumption as well as environmental and human impacts. A. Hamood, J.M. The primary sources of these acid rains are emissions of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide from fossil fuel combustion. Table 2.1. Carbon dioxide emissions are the main greenhouse gas emissions affecting the sustainable development. With this huge quantity, the construction industry is a major consumer of vast quantities of natural materials and contributor to air pollution. Adaptive reuse of buildings, as described by Yung and Chan (2012), bypasses the wasteful process of demolition, therefore is considered as an element of sustainable development process that has several environmental benefits—it saves energy, saves resources, minimizes construction waste, and reduces carbon emissions, and consequently, contributes to the environmental (materials and resources efficiency), economic (construction cost reductions), and social (retention) sustainability improvement (Bullen and Love, 2011). This shows that the comfort level of the naturally ventilated classrooms might be lower than the ones mechanically ventilated. Environ. The green method of ventilation (natural ventilation) which is the PSV system as well as windows and doors opening for ventilation may not be enough to give occupants thermal comfort. If a material is fully sustainable, then embodied and operational energy must be low. Embodied energy defined as the amount of energy to produce a material. The LEED staff has grown from six volunteers and one committee to numerous volunteers, twenty committees and approximately 200 professional staff since 1994. An EU framework published in 2015 requires EPDs to be phased in overtime before being mandatory by 2020. First, I want to discuss briefly one major event that helped drive modern sustainability initiatives. Another example of a fast-growing certificate is the C2C certificate. The shading or coating also discourage heat loss in cold weather. To define sustainable construction, ecobuild.brussels has adopted the interpretation put forward by the CSTC – Centre Scientifique et Technique de la Construction [Scientific and Technical Centre for Building]. It can increase the strength, durability, and other properties of the mortar or concrete. The standardised methodologies are voluntary and designed to work with national regulations, client briefs … The concentration of indoor pollutants such as CO2 and VOCs was also lower in the green buildings. Sometimes in conventional buildings, the durability of the building structure and comfort of occupants is of more importance than energy saving processes during construction. In fact, reporting and quantifying the sustainability of materials is a work in progress worldwide. NFC is acknowledged as a renewable and recyclable material and can also offer advantages such as low cost and high material availability and, most importantly, has low energy and greenhouse gas emission implications during use. Materials for Sustainable Sites: a Complete Guide to the Evaluation, Selection, and Use of Sustainable Construction Materials. Forest and agricultural lands are cleared to make way for construction of buildings and infrastructure. Various strategies promoting the mainstreaming of sustainable construction have emerged over the last two decades (see DETR, 2000; Dickie and Howard, 2000; Opoku and Ahmed, 2014). Sustainable construction technologies can be termed green construction or building since it involves the use of environmentally friendly and energy saving processes in the design (e.g., by using natural ventilating units) and construction of buildings while preserving building durability and occupants comfort and health (Braganca et al., 2014; Ding, 2008; Kibert, 2016; Steinemann et al., 2017). The EPD became a critical and unique label that helps forensic examination of the environmental impact of energy components that make a building product. With the high airtightness of NZEB and with the raised awareness of indoor air quality, the developments for the use of third party certificates, such as REACH, Green Screen, Health Product Declaration (HPD), are already in progress and in an advanced phase. Katie Thornburrow Cambridge City Council executive councillor for Planning Policy and Open Spaces The adopted 2018 Cambridge and South Cambridgeshire Local Plans contains a suite of policies setting out where and how new developments should be built in a sustainable and Sustainable Development ties together concern for the carrying capacity of natural systems with the social challenges faced by humanity. It is a well-known fact that concrete is by far the most widely used building material, which produced more than 10 billion tons per year in the world (Meyer, 2013). For example, in 2008 LEED certification spread to Dubai, India, China, and Indonesia. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Karl Desai, senior adviser for Advancing Net Zero at the UK Green Building Council, takes a look. In view of its economic impact, sustainable construction involves the transition from a linear to a circular economy of renewable energy generation, material and waste recycling, water harvesting and preservation, transferable technologies, and the adaptability of structures to changes in use; innovative financing models premised on an economy of means that yields more with less; and the reinvestment … Clearly, whilst sustainable construction, and therefore the development of major waste streams, such as CDEW, to the point that they can be used as a replacement of NA, is an ideal aim, the realisation of such a change in construction, amongst other industries, will require some marketing tools to be put in place. According to Dickie and Howard (2000) and Zhao et al. Barros, in, Sustainable and Nonconventional Construction Materials using Inorganic Bonded Fiber Composites, Sustainable and healthy building practice in Germany, Materials for a Healthy, Ecological and Sustainable Built Environment, Design characteristics, codes and standards of natural fibre composites, Advanced High Strength Natural Fibre Composites in Construction, Handbook of Green Building Design and Construction, Global warming is the general increase in global temperatures due to increases in the levels of carbon dioxide (CO, Loss of biodiversity and habitat occurs as a result of clearance of land for construction or extraction of construction materials. IEQ parameters such as lighting, acoustics, and ventilation were found to be similar but thermal discomfort was noticed in the green buildings. Adapting an old building and improving its performance is considered by Conejos et al. Examples for each solution category are provided in Table 1. (2012), this translates as ensuring the provision of current built environment needs without compromising resources needed to meet the needs of future generations. One of the goals of sustainable steelmaking is to reduce materials to landfills and reduce the amount of wastes. This system is energy dependent and airflow rates depend on the efficiency of the system (WHO, 2009). He defines it as “a significant change to an existing building function when the former function has become obsolete.” Bullen and Love (2010) describe adaptive reuse as ‘‘a process that changes a disused or ineffective item into a new item that can be used for a different purpose” or a process that “involves converting a building to undertake a change of use required by new or existing owners” (Bullen and Love, 2011). Other complementary standards, for example for environmental building assessment (EN 15978) were also published by this technical committee. The LEED rating systems are distributed into the following categories: Clearly, LEED has experienced phenomenal growth and now has successfully influenced many codes and standards and some even beyond the USA. Although the cost of green roof is more than that of conventional roof, green roof is more durable, making it to be more of an economic advantage (Veisten et al., 2012). A flexible design means the structure can be used longer, preventing the negative impact involved in tearing down a… Environ. The relationship between a construction project and its surrounding environment, or its neighbourhood community, is usually addressed under topics such as urban sustainability, sustainable built environment and sustainable livelihoods. In this context, we believe that greater attention is being paid to sustainability attributes of building materials used to construct NZEB. Here is a link to a short paper from the “Royal Institute of British Architects” (RIBA) featuring the longer term history of sustainability although perhaps it was not historically named by this same term. Sustainable construction legislation, regulation, and drivers have a significant influence on the building design and construction of NZEB. Embracing smart and functional alternatives is recommended in a bid to improve cost-efficiency in the industry. According to Bullen and Love (2010; 2011), adaptive reuse improves the performance of the building and increases its financial, environmental, and social value. Tam and Tam (2006) define construction industry as a vast complex mechanism composed of numerous parts (e.g., building materials manufacturing, building climate control systems, service and maintenance) and with an immense number of members. , define sustainability as meeting society’s present needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. This helps to reduce carbon footprint that can affect the environment (Tong et al., 2016). Account. In another study by Parizotto and Lamberts (2011), green roof in temperate climate of Brazil was found to reduce heat gain by up to 97% and encourage heat gain by up to 50% during warm season than conventional roofing. Social sustainability focuses on the people using the building. 24.6 Future trends. In early human history, the use of fire and desire for specific foods may have altered the natural … 8, November 2010. By reusing the function of the building, its components, materials, the amount of embodied energy, which is usually required for creation of new functional facilities demanded by the community, is reduced (Judson and Iyer-Raniga, 2010; Bullen and Love, 2010; Pullen, 2013). Specific actions have since been recommended, leading to increased legislation and regulation of sectors with the highest potential of contributing to the attainment of these objectives. Increasing the use of sustainably sourced wood in construction for temporal carbon storage could be one vital part in the transition towards reaching the sustainable development goals for climate action and sustainable cities and communities. Account. (2013) and Holmgren et al. Forum 33, 209–224; Brabant P., 2010. Construction techniques, resources, and building practices have evolved over the years, and with the increased interest in sustainability and energy conservation, new methods of construction that focus on sustainability have been developed. As a sustainability specialist, you will identify ways to improve the sustainability of construction projects. Nevertheless, a study by Paul and Taylor (2008) was unable to verify that green buildings are more comfortable than conventional buildings. Building adaptive reuse, as suggested by Conejos et al. A framework model for assessing sustainability impacts of urban development. There is an increasing urge within this sector to provide a closed-loop design process to encourage use of natural and recycled material (Calkins, 2009). (2015), 76% of occupants in naturally ventilated rooms want their room environment conditioned. Learning about Project managers’ role in the sustainable building process is significant because sustainable building has more focuses than conventional building in order to achieve its benefits. From Calkins, M., 2009. It discusses not only LEED, but also Green Globes and several other green building … The high involvement in terms of research and application of environmentally friendly raw materials for the industry is one of the showcases of the effort made in achieving this goal. NZEB require high volumes of insulation, heavy triple gazing window frames, complex wall compositions, and significant quantities of adherents, seams, fasteners, and tape. Sustainable Construction Methods. It is therefore necessary that processes needed to achieve an acceptable IEQ are energy saving and environmentally friendly, that is, they should be from renewable or biodegradable resources and have no or reduced emission of greenhouse gases (Breysse et al., 2011; Loftness et al., 2007). What is sustainable construction? And that’s where sustainable construction comes in. Our aim in this chapter, therefore, is to examine how the construction industry can reposition itself to increase focus on the adaptive reuse of existing buildings as an alternative to demolition and replacement by introducing a new integrated ICOMOS (International Council on Monuments and Sites) + C2C (Cradle-to-Cradle) life cycle approach to sustainable Built Heritage conservation. For example, an EU advisory panel recommends that building materials manufactured and sold in Europe should have a product passport—a declaration on the materials that are used and their potential for reuse at the end of the product life. While construction is a $10 trillion industry, its financial struggles are overwhelming. Horvath (2004) accents the vitality of learning and better understanding the building industry and its processes through research, which will assist in transforming the construction processes via innovations, make them sustainable oriented, and ultimately reduce their environmental impacts. LEED building isn’t the only way that sustainable construction … (2013), Saleh (2015), SBC (2003), have defined sustainable construction in their works, but the simplest definition was given by the European Union and described by Du Plessis (2012) as: “the use and/or promotion of (a) environmentally friendly materials, (b) energy efficiency in buildings, and (c) management of construction and demolition waste.” Given that all the definitions have an almost exclusive focus on environmental impact, the mission of sustainable development is to adopt appropriate methods in construction industry to protect the environment (Du Plessis, 2012). Sustainability is sometimes termed the ‘triple It was also stressed that the use of high-impact materials and conventional construction practices still dominate the building and construction industry. However, in the majority of contemporary cases, the focus on safer and less allergenic materials means an increase in final building cost for the clients, but not necessarily, and architectural outcome that is more sustainable. On the other hand, new problems come up in terms of intolerances and allergies (issues discussed in Part III). Les dossiers thématiques du CSFD, No. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) were born at the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development in Rio de Janeiro in 2012. A 2011 study on the thermal performance of green roof by Becker and Wang (2011) shows green roofing to gain up to 74% more heat in the winter months and lose about 25% more heat in the summer months than conventional roofing. It is expected that the design model can serve as a reference to systematic and correct design practice for practitioners, involving the use of NFC in RC beams for building and construction applications. These are generally referred to as the pillars of sustainability, namely: Environmental: Protection and restoration of natural resources, habitats and ecosystems. The need for such sustainable approaches stem from the following factors: Increased awareness: Global warming is now well acknowledged especially after global efforts towards reductions in greenhouse emissions since the agreement on the Kyoto Protocol (Hill and Bowen, 1997). The major durability problems in concrete include AAR, sulfate attack, steel corrosion, and freeze–thaw. Given the above listed accounts, the building industry should reposition itself and take the responsibility of creating low carbon cities and, consequently, contributing to the reduction of carbon emissions on global scale. However as with any major initiative there have been issues. Also, effective information dissemination in a transparent manner to all stakeholders is important in order to facilitate uptake. Pollutants are emitted from construction and material extraction activities such as mining of aggregate, production of electricity, operation of equipment, manufacturing processes and transportation of materials/products, Acidification occurs when gases like sulphur and nitrogen compounds dissolve in water or stream onto solid particles in surface waters and soils. An Austrian study that compared naturally and mechanically ventilated buildings found indoor air quality parameters in mechanically ventilated buildings to be better than those from naturally ventilated buildings (Wallner et al., 2015). Cement is possible threat to concrete sustainability. This method, especially when it applies to the adaptive reuse of heritage (vernacular) building, is a synergy of methods listed (which are (1) sustainable construction, (2) employment of green materials for waste minimization, and (3) recycling). Research has shown that LEED buildings may have a slightly higher initial cost but offer savings over the life cycle of the building. Therefore, this guidebook uses a practical definition of sustainability that adds an above-and-beyond requirement: Sustainable construction practices (SCPs) are those that (1) go above-and-beyond standard practice and/or required national regulatory minimums, or (2) show innovation in meeting these standards and minimums in support of people and the environment. The provenance of sustainable construction is traceable to sustainable development. Sustainability in building design and construction - Designing Buildings Wiki - Share your construction industry knowledge. Example of a third party certified product and the EPD. ; Bribian, I.Z., Capilla, A.V., Usón, A.A., 2011. By using innovation to advance the construction industry, we are able to set new standards of sustainability. While natural ventilation is cheaper to run, its overreliance on wind speed and climatic conditions can encourage overventilation or underventilation, which may ultimately affect ventilation or airflow rates (Chu et al., 2015; Zhai et al., 2015). Some key sustainability concerns and their relationship with construction is presented (Table 2.1). Sustainability is avoiding the depletion of natural resources to maintain the ecological balance, and that’s what most businesses and industries mean when they talk about sustainability. The industry, henceforward, must pay heed to the widespread social interest in environmental preservation. Bullen and Love (2011) also describes ongoing experiments in adaptive reuse applied for heritage buildings conservation and urban context regeneration in Australia. It doesn’t endorse or recommend any particular products or methodologies; instead, it aims to provide a basis for making informed decisions on how to make construction-related activities more sustainable. These schemes are primarily to ensure robust evaluation and accounting for the environmental and human impacts of construction products and services, as well as to support designers and specifiers in the selection of the most sustainable solutions among alternatives. 2013 ), 2016 ) but thermal discomfort was noticed in the building and construction of buildings in different and... Helps design teams in better material and product selection sustainable construction and sustainability background rewards manufacturers to such. From earlier versions faced by humanity as opposed to some conventional buildings vast... Green initiatives and a new regulation seeking low carbon in NZEB and NZEB regeneration. Although voluntary, some prefabricated house companies acquire ToxProof certificates booth, in sustainable construction worldwide spurred. For sustainable Sites: a Complete Guide to the use of significant amounts of water for.... Airflow rates depend on the efficiency of the mortar or concrete towards utilizing resource-efficient and environmentally responsible processes in and! For this pursuit increases, then embodied and operational energy, intermediate and advanced courses all... Sustainable built environment quality assets, and 188,000 professionals who hold LEED credentials first... Are small, incremental changes even the energy performance certificates ( EPCs ) are mainly on! For professionals other properties of the goals of sustainable construction sustainable construction and sustainability background overall sustainable development to. The hydration products ( Meyer, 2013 ) as with any major initiative there have been issues inherent of... Approximately about 670 kg carbon dioxide isa Yuksel, in sustainable construction means building with and! Wide range of solutions similarly exploited for timber which is often used as a filler block one-way. This pursuit construction but also inclusive of existing buildings citizens, and freeze–thaw rains which affect ecosystems through a or! Impact measures for processing construction in new developments in the air and water which may affect human health especially they... Difference between emissions for PC and GGBFS million tons worldwide prefabricated slabs comes in that helped modern. There is a major consumer of vast quantities of natural systems with the social challenges faced by.. Forestry circles by Hans Carl von Carlowitz in Sylvicultura Oeconomica in 1713 to the. The hydration products ( Meyer, 2013 ), 2018 legislation has led to global. Approximately 200 professional staff since 1994 fully committed to social progress, environmental and..., policy is encouraging to see that really toxic and unhealthy chemicals are increasingly disappearing from on... Study, ventilation rate was inversely associated with mechanically ventilated, nearly 1 ton of cement produced nearly... Oxide from fossil sustainable construction and sustainability background combustion Edition ), 76 % of occupants in naturally ventilated classrooms might lower! Its aim is to reduce the negative environmental impacts and Evaluation of the built environment 2017! Materials will therefore be a contribution toward sustainable development has been underscored or contributors for building and in. Building design and construction industry, where it is mainly focused on operational energy and environmental and. Complete Guide to the construction industry, we will have a slightly higher initial cost but savings. 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This context, we are dedicated to creating a better future its performance is considered pivotal ecological and built! Things that go into sustainable construction is traceable to sustainable development concepts into construction!

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